Weather is still rainy, and forecasts are not very encouraging. But now is the time to think about the warm-ups and the purchase of a new bike , the walks with which will be very useful for your health. Let us recall the history of this unique transport vehicle. The bicycle was created in 1817 by the German professor Karl von Dres and looked quite different from today. In its present form, the wheel appeared only in 1839-1940 when it was perfected by the smith Kirkpatrick McMillan. Several decades passed through which the invention has been constantly improved. The emergence of the bicycle has played a huge role in creating other modes of transport .


There are currently several different types of bicycles. The main varieties are four - rijd, hardtail, softtail and double suspension. Ryzhid is distinguished by the fact that no dampers are provided in his construction and the front fork is rigid. This is the lightest and quickest model, but its comfort and patency are low. It is best suited for riding on flat asphalt pavements. Hardtail is the most popular type of wheel - it has a front shock absorber that makes it more passable and resistant to uneven terrain. However, this improvement has its drawbacks - the wheel is considerably heavier and slower. Softtail has two dampers, which is a nice bonus when riding on a terrain. The double suspension wheels have improved shock absorbers for extreme riding.

Bicycles can be divided into mountain, road, hybrid, urban and tourist biking. The first type is designed for riding on rough terrain - it has a reinforced frame, wide tires with a specific tread pattern and many speeds to conquer the most difficult routes. On the contrary, the drive wheels are intended for speeding on equal asphalt roads. They have thin tires, a curved rudder and a lightweight frame. This type of wheel is not suitable for novices because of the unusual sitting position. The hybrid wheel, as it can be assumed by its name, combines the qualities of the two other types. It is suitable for asphalt riding and for overcoming unevenness. But if you plan to drive mostly on a terrain, you better buy a mountain runner. The urban wheel is similar to the hybrid, but there is a larger amount of accessories - such as a rear-view mirror, headlamp and rack. The tourist bicycle wants to be as comfortable and reliable as possible. with his help you will also be able to carry moderate luggage. In all cases, the choice of wheel depends entirely on your preferences and financial capabilities.

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World famous car races

July 22, 1894 in Paris, started the world's first car racing. On their cars, participants had to travel along a given route to Rouen in 12 hours. This race is considered the official date of birth as such, and especially for this date KP prepared a selection of the most famous world speed competitions.

"Royal race" "Formula 1"

Racing champion "Formula 1", perhaps the first thing that everyone remembers when it comes to motorsport. They exist since 1950. Formula 1 is held every year and consists of several stages that have the status of a grand prix. At the same time, points for victories are awarded not only to pilots, but also to car manufacturers in the framework of the “Constructors' Championship”. . Teams participating in competitions use race cars of their own production. Thus, to win, it is necessary not only to find not only fast pilots, but also to clearly organize the process of servicing cars. Since teams build fireballs according to their own technologies and due to the high competition of teams, original technical solutions are constantly born in Formula 1, which leads to the progress of both racing cars and road cars. It was in "Formula 1" that real motor racing legends were born.Schumacher is a seven-time world champion, nicknamed "The Red Baron". By skill, Ayrton Senna is considered to have no equal. According to the results of a survey conducted by the British magazine Autosport among the former and current participants of the Formula 1 championship, Senna was named the best rider in the history of the competition. In just ten years of performances, he won more than 40 races and set a record for the number of pole positions. He got the nickname “Wizard” from the press

2. 24 hours of Le Mans.

Race “24 Hours of Le Mans»Appeared in 1923 near the French city of Le Mans. This car competition is considered the oldest existing today. The goal of auto racing to identify not only the fastest car, but also the most enduring. Both on the roads and on special sites. The length of the ring is 13 kilometers. Pilots circle it for 24 hours, although according to the current rules they are allowed to change. Each car must be driven by at least three pilots. Like any other kind of competition, Le Mans has its own characteristics. For example, the start of the races by the French flag. At the end of the race marshals waving flags, greeting the winner.


The key question. Wrench as it is


What is a wrench, everyone knows. The device of this simple tool - you can not imagine. Meanwhile, there are good keys and bad ones. How do they differ and how to take a good tool and give up the inferior, what can a good key and what can not bad? Do you need a quality tool if you have to use it rarely and with long breaks? On the same expensive key is better than its cheap fellow, how much is it more expensive? These and many other questions arise before a person who wants to buy a tool.

There are more than enough shops selling hand tools; one thing unites them: no, absolutely no information on wrenches will be given to you!

Please note: a set of professional (as the manufacturer calls him, and behind him the seller) can cost 12 and 30 thousand rubles, and no instructions and no technical data that are understandable to the buyer are not given to him. Perhaps, only the mention of product compliance with ISO, DIN and GOST standards. But there was no standard for stores in stores. If GOST can still be found, then foreign standards are protected by copyright, and the purchase of a non-thick book of such standards will cost several hundred dollars.


There are very cheap tools that are not intended for sale, they complete assembly sets of machines and mechanisms, the role of the key from such a set is to wrap ten new nuts on new oiled bolts, then it can be thrown away.

We'll have to learn to choose the keys with the highest chances for a successful result. First, let's think: what do we expect from any key? There are few requirements for it:

- as fully as possible transfer the torque to the bolt or nut;

- as long as possible service life;

- the most convenient access to the nut;

- convenience and safety of use.



Torque (torque; torque; torque) is a vector physical quantity equal to the product of the radius vector, drawn from the axis of rotation to the point of application of force, by the vector of this force. It characterizes the rotational effect of a force on a solid body (Fig. 1).

The moment of force is defined as the product:

M = F • d,

where F is the force acting on the body; d - shoulder strength.

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Popular Car Races

500 miles of Indianapolis.

This is the most famous car race taking place in America . The venue is the stadium called Old Brick in Indianapolis. Competitions have been held since 1911, later the track was lined with bricks, which gave it such a name. It takes place every year on the last Sunday of May, on the eve of the Day of Remembrance. The duration of the circle is 4 kilometers. I remember that in her in 1911 won the American Ray Harrow, who received a weighty prize of 10 thousand dollars. Before the start, the US anthem and the unofficial Indiana anthem are played. In honor of the victory, according to the old tradition, they drink a glass of milk and kiss the cherished brick lane. 24 hours Nürburgring

Rally Dakar.

Traditionally, the start of the race began in Paris, and the finish was located in Dakar , the most western point of Africa . However, at first the start was transferred to other cities, and then from 2009 the competitions generally began to take place in South America. Motorcycles, cars and trucks are currently participating in the race. The road coverage in this rally is very diverse - stones, sand, hard ground, salt marshes. The race itself is very dangerous - the participants collide with each other, go missing and knock down the locals.

24 hours Nürburgring.

The race takes place on the North Loop of Nürburgring. The length is 22-25 kilometers. The 24 hour race starts usually in May or June. 220 cars start at the start, which is why it is carried out in three stages. The number of riders can exceed 800 people. This is due to the fact that each machine can drive up to 8 people. In the history of the race, there were cases when a woman won a victory.

.24 hours of Dayton.

The race is one of the main in the USA. It takes place every year in Daytona Beach, Florida on a special track. The peculiarity of these competitions is that the pilots are driving along a completely closed highway, city streets are not used here. The race takes place in late January-early February. Currently, all winners are given a steel watch from the main sponsor of the Rolex company.

24 hours Spa.

The Belgian Spa-Francorchamps circuit is known for its annual 24-hour race. It was first held in 1924. Until 1979, the competition took place on a 14-kilometer ring, and after reconstruction the length of the route was halved. The daily race was part of cars and sports cars. Since 2010, the race has been held as part of the GT2 European Championship . In 1971, three Soviet Moskvich-412 took part in the marathon.